Science and Human Behavior“We first define a positive reinforcer as any stimulus the presentation of which strengthens the behavior upon which it is made contingent. We define a negative reinforcer (an aversive stimulus) as any stimulus the withdrawal of which strengthens behavior. Both are reinforcers in the literal sense of reinforcing or strengthening a response. Insofar as scientific definition corresponds to lay usage, they are both “rewards.” In solving the problem of punishment we simply ask: What is the effect of withdrawing a positive reinforcer or presenting a negative?” (p. 185)

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