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About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 18

“The experimental analysis of behavior is a rigorous, extensive, and rapidly advancing branch of biology, and only those who are unaware of its scope can call it oversimplified.” (p. 255)
 

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 17

“A science of behavior is especially vulnerable to the charge of simplification because it is hard to believe that a fairly simple principle can have vast consequences in our lives. We have learned to accept similar apparent discrepancies in other fields. We no longer find it hard to believe that a bacterium or virus […]

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 16

“Those who say that a science of behavior is oversimplified and naïve usually show an oversimplified and naïve knowledge of the science, and those who claim that what it has to say is either trivial or already well known are usually unfamiliar with its actual accomplishments.” (p. 253)
 

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 15

“Those who feel that they understand what is happening in the world at large may be tested in a very simple way: let them look at the organism as it behaves in a modern experiment and tell us what they see.” (p. 252)
 

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 14

“Obviously we cannot predict or control human behavior in daily life with the precision obtained in the laboratory, but we can nevertheless use results from the laboratory to interpret behavior elsewhere.” (p. 251)
 

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 13

“There are excellent reasons for beginning with simple cases and moving on only as the power of the analysis permits. If this means, as it seems to mean, that one begins with animals, the emphasis is no doubt upon those features which animals and people have in common. Something is gained, however, since only […]

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 12

“Nothing about the position taken in this book questions the uniqueness of each member of the human species, but the uniqueness is inherent in the sources. There is no place in the scientific position for a self as a true originator or initiator of action.” (pp. 247-248)
 

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 11

“A member of the human species has identity, in the sense that he is one member and no other. He begins as an organism and becomes a person or self as he acquires a repertoire of behavior. He may become more than one person or self if he acquires more or less incompatible repertoires […]

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 10

“Contingencies of reinforcement also resemble contingencies of survival in the production of novelty . . . In both natural selection and operant conditioning the appearance of “mutations” is crucial.” (pp. 246-247)
 

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 9

“Evolutionary theory moved the purpose which seemed to be displayed by the human genetic endowment from antecedent design to subsequent selection by contingencies of survival. Operant theory moved the purpose which seemed to be displayed by human action from antecedent intention or plan to subsequent selection by contingencies of reinforcement.” (p. 246)
 

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 8

“No matter how defective a behavioral account may be, we must remember that mentalistic explanations explain nothing.” (p. 246)
 

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 7

“Not only does a behavioral analysis not reject any of these “higher mental processes”; it has taken the lead in investigating the contingencies under which they occur. What it rejects is the assumption that comparable activities take place in the mysterious world of the mind.” (p. 246)
 

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 6

“It is hard to understand why it is so often said that behaviorism neglects innate endowment. Watson’s careless remark that he could take any healthy infant and convert him into a doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant chief, and, yes, even beggarman or thief can scarcely be responsible, because Watson himself repeatedly referred to the “hereditary […]

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 5

“Must we conclude that all those who have speculated about consciousness as a form of self-knowledge—from the Greeks to the British empiricists to the phenomenologists—have wasted their time? Perhaps we must. (p. 243)
 

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 4

“A completely independent science of subjective experience would have no more bearing on a science of behavior than a science of what people feel about fire would have on the science of combustion. Nor could experience be divorced from the physical world in the way needed to make such a science possible.” (p. 243)
 

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 3

“Other species are also conscious in the sense of being under stimulus control. They feel pain in the sense of responding to painful stimuli, as they see a light or hear a sound in the sense of responding appropriately, but no verbal contingencies make them conscious of pain in the sense of feeling that […]

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 2

“No special kind of mind stuff is assumed. A physical world generates both physical action and the physical conditions within the body to which a person responds when a verbal community arranges the necessary contingencies.” (p. 242)
 

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 14: Summing Up, Quote 1

“Introspective knowledge of one’s own body—self-knowledge—is defective for two reasons: the verbal community cannot bring self-descriptive behavior under the precise control of private stimuli, and there has been no opportunity for the evolution of a nervous system which would bring some very important parts of the body under that control.” (p. 242)
 

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 13: What Is Inside the Skin?, Quote 9

“Just as we cannot appeal to innate endowment to explain grammatical speech, logic, or mathematics because grammar, logic, and mathematics have not been part of the human environment for a long enough time, so we must question any effort to attribute introspective self-knowledge to a nervous system especially adapted to that purpose. Verbal behavior, […]

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 13: What Is Inside the Skin?, Quote 8

“[A person] does not make contact with that vast nervous system that mediates his behavior. He does not because he has no nerves going to the right places. Trying to observe much of what is going on in one’s own body is like trying to hear supersonic sounds or see electromagnetic radiation beyond the […]

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 13: What Is Inside the Skin?, Quote 7

“[The physiologist of the future] will be able to show how an organism is changed when exposed to contingencies of reinforcement and why the changed organism then behaves in a different way, possibly at a much later date. What he discovers cannot invalidate the laws of a science of behavior, but it will make […]

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By |September 19th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 13: What Is Inside the Skin?, Quote 7|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 13: What Is Inside the Skin?, Quote 6

“The physiologist of the future will tell us all that can be known about what is happening inside the behaving organism. His account will be an important advance over a behavioral analysis, because the latter is necessarily “historical”—that is to say, it is confined to functional relations showing temporal gaps.” (p. 236)
 

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By |September 18th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 13: What Is Inside the Skin?, Quote 6|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 13: What Is Inside the Skin?, Quote 5

“It is direct intervention and manipulation of the body which is most often cited today to illustrate the dangers of the control of behavior, but a much more effective control is already within reach through environmental manipulation. It is only the traditional fascination with an inner life which again leads to the neglect of […]

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By |September 15th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 13: What Is Inside the Skin?, Quote 5|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 13: What Is Inside the Skin?, Quote 4

“The organism is, of course, not empty, and it cannot be adequately treated simply as a black box, but we must carefully distinguish between what is known about what is inside and what is merely inferred.” (p. 233)
 

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By |September 14th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 13: What Is Inside the Skin?, Quote 4|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 13: What Is Inside the Skin?, Quote 3

“A science of behavior must consider the place of private stimuli as physical things, and in doing so it provides an alternative account of mental life. The question, then is this: What is inside the skin, and how do we know about it? The answer is, I believe, the heart of radical behaviorism.” (p. […]

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By |September 13th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 13: What Is Inside the Skin?, Quote 3|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 13: What Is Inside the Skin?, Quote 2

“It is true that we could trace human behavior not only to the physical conditions which shape and maintain it but also to the causes of those conditions and the causes of those causes, almost ad infinitum, but there is no point in going back beyond the point at which effective action can be […]

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By |September 12th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 13: What Is Inside the Skin?, Quote 2|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 13: What Is Inside the Skin?, Quote 1

“Attitudes, opinions, or intelligence, as states inferred from behavior, are also useless in control, but they permit us to predict one kind of behavior from another kind known to be associated with it, presumably because of a common cause.” (p. 230)
 

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By |September 11th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 13: What Is Inside the Skin?, Quote 1|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 18

“No one steps outside the causal stream. No one really intervenes. Mankind has slowly but erratically created environments in which people behave more effectively and no doubt enjoy the feelings which accompany successful behavior. It is a continuing process.” (p. 227)
 

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By |September 8th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 18|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 17

“The notion of evolution is misleading—and it misled both Herbert Spencer and Darwin—when it suggests that the good represented by survival will naturally work itself out. Things go wrong under all three contingencies of selection, and they may need to be put right by explicit design.” (p. 226)
 

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By |September 7th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 17|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 16

“There are remarkable similarities in natural selection, operant conditioning, and the evolution of social environments. Not only do all three dispense with a prior creative design and a prior purpose, they invoke the notion of survival as a value.” (pp. 225.-226)
 

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By |September 6th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 16|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 15

“Man is born free,” said Rousseau, “and is everywhere in chains,” but no one is less free than a newborn child, nor will he become free as he grows older. His only hope is that he will come under the control of a natural and social environment in which he will make the most […]

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By |September 5th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 15|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 14

“The control of behavior is concealed or disguised in education, psychotherapy, and religion, when the role of teacher, therapist, or priest is said to be to guide, direct, or counsel, rather than to manage, and where measures which cannot be so disguised are rejected as intervention.” (p. 219)
 

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 13

“Control is concealed when it is represented as changing minds rather than behavior.” (p. 218)
 

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By |September 1st, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 13|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 12

“Compare two people, one of whom has been crippled by an accident, the other by an early environmental history which makes him lazy and, when criticized, mean. Both cause great inconvenience to others, but one dies a martyr, the other a scoundrel.” (p. 215)
 

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By |August 31st, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 12|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 11

“. . . if we are asked, “Is a person moral because he behaves morally, or does he behave morally because he is moral?” we must answer, “Neither.” He behaves morally and we call him moral because he lives in a particular kind of environment.” (p. 213)
 

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By |August 30th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 11|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 10

“A person who has been exposed to the promise of heaven and the threat of hell may feel stronger bodily states than one whose behavior is merely approved or censured by his fellow men. But neither one acts because he knows or feels that his behavior is right; he acts because of the contingencies […]

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By |August 29th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 10|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 9

“We sometimes say that we acted in a given way because we knew it was right or felt that it was right, but what we feel when we behave morally or ethically depends on the contingencies responsible for our behavior.” (p. 212)
 

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By |August 28th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 9|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 8

“We refrain from hurting others, not because we “know how it feels to be hurt,” but (1) because hurting other members of the species reduces the chances that the species will survive, and (2) when we have hurt others, we ourselves have been hurt.” (p. 211)
 

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By |August 25th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 8|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 7

“The consequences responsible for benevolent, devoted, compassionate, or public-spirited behavior are forms of countercontrol, and when they are lacking, these much-admired features of behavior are lacking.” (p. 210)
 

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By |August 24th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 7|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 6

“[Control] is exerted in ways which most effectively reinforce those who exert it, and unfortunately this usually means in ways which either are immediately aversive to those controlled or exploit them in the long run.” (p. 209)
 

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By |August 23rd, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 6|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 5

“We cannot choose a way of life in which there is no control. We can only change the controlling conditions.” (p. 209)
 

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By |August 22nd, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 5|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 4

“A person acts upon the environment, and what he achieves is essential to his survival and the survival of the species. Science and technology are merely manifestations of this essential feature of human behavior.” (208-209)
 

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By |August 21st, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 4|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 3

“We often overlook the fact that human behavior is also a form of control. That an organism should act to control the world around it is as characteristic of life as breathing or reproduction.” (p. 208)
 

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By |August 18th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 3|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 2

“We cannot prove, of course, that human behavior as a whole is fully determined, but the proposition becomes more plausible as facts accumulate, and I believe that a point has been reached at which its implications must be seriously considered” (p. 208)
 

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By |August 17th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 2|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 1

“A scientific analysis of behavior must, I believe, assume that a person’s behavior is controlled by his genetic and environmental histories rather than by the person himself as an initiating, creative agent; but no part of the behavioristic position has raised more violent objections.” (p. 208)
 

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By |August 16th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 12: The Question of Control, Quote 1|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 11: The Self and Others, Quote 27

“What is needed,” says Carl Rogers, “is a new concept of therapy as offering help, not control.” But these are not alternatives. One can help a person by arranging an environment which exerts control, and if I am right, one cannot help a person without doing so.” (pp. 204-205)
 

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About Behaviorism, Chapter 11: The Self and Others, Quote 26

“When a problem calling for therapy is due to a shortage of social or intimately personal reinforcers, a solution may be difficult . . . Simulated attention, approval, or affection will eventually cause more problems than it solves, and even the deliberate use of deserved attention cheapens the coinage.” (p. 204)
 

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By |August 14th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 11: The Self and Others, Quote 26|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 11: The Self and Others, Quote 25

“The metaphor of growth begins in the “kindergarten” and continues into “higher” education, diverting attention from the contingencies responsible for changes in the students’ behavior.” (pp. 203-204)
 

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By |August 11th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 11: The Self and Others, Quote 25|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 11: The Self and Others, Quote 24

“[Teaching] is a field in which the goal seems to be obviously a matter of changing minds, attitudes, feelings, motives, and so on, and the Establishment is therefore particularly resistant to change. Yet, the point of education can be stated in behavioral terms: a teacher arranges contingencies under which the student acquires behavior which […]

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By |August 10th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 11: The Self and Others, Quote 24|

About Behaviorism, Chapter 11: The Self and Others, Quote 23

“One person changes the behavior of another by changing the world in which he lives. In doing so, he no doubt changes what the other person feels or introspectively observes.” (p. 199)
 

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By |August 9th, 2017|Skinner's Quote of the Day|Comments Off on About Behaviorism, Chapter 11: The Self and Others, Quote 23|